Create-A-Plan to Control the Dust

Option 3 - Studies and Data on Silica Exposure and the Use of Dust Controls

Material, Task, Etc. Year of Study Title Summary
Concrete Cutting 2015 A Water Soluble Additive to Suppress Respirable Dust from Concrete-Cutting Chainsaws: A Case Study Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. 
Multiple 2015 Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study Researchers sampled airborne silica at thirteen occupational sites in the United States and Ireland, using both high and low flow rate cyclones, and compared results. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. 
Multiple 2015 Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. This study showed that the structured intervention approach at least partly contributed to a substantial reduction in quartz exposure among high exposed construction workers.
Concrete Drilling 2015  Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure when Dowel Drilling in Concrete Construction workers may be exposed to hazardous dust containing respirable crystalline silica when using dowel drilling machines to drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that exposures were reduced using tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation (LEV) and good work practices.
Multiple  2015 A Case-Control Study of Airways Obstruction Among Construction Workers While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes increase COPD risk. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted.
Fiber-Cement Cutting 2015 Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure when Cutting Fiber-Cement Siding Construction workers may be exposed to hazardous dust containing silica when cutting fiber-cement siding. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that workers’ exposures could be reduced by attaching a regular shop vacuum to a dust-collecting circular saw providing a simple low-cost solution.
Multiple 2014 An Evaluation of Silica Exposure Controls for Tuckpointing: Ermator S26 Vacuum with Two ICS Dust Director Shrouds adn Two Bosch Grinders This report describes the results of an evaluation of a tuckpointing dust control system for use by two workers simultaneously. The system consisted of two Bosch grinders; two Dust Director shrouds attached by duct to a single Ermator S26 vacuum. Randomized trials with and without use of the dust control system were conducted in a controlled setting.
Multiple 2013 Study - Construction Workers' Exposure to Crystalline Silica - Literature Review and Analysis The specific objectives of this study of construction workers' exposure to silica "were to identify the positions and duties most at risk in relation to their exposure level; to identify the various means of controlling exposure while documenting their effectiveness; and to develop a relational database on the exposure to silica dusts, compiling the literature data in a form usable by researchers or preventionists..."
Roof Tile Cutting & Clean-Up 2013 Exposure Assessment for Roofers Exposed to Silica during Installation of Roof Tiles Results of a health hazard evaluation conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of exposures to dust and silica among roofer in Phoenix.
Concrete Cutting 2013 Controlling Dust from Concrete Saw Cutting Results of field experiment examining dust reductions through the use of water from a hose and sprayer while cutting concrete with gas-powered saws.
Multiple 2013 Occupational Exposure to Silica in Construction Workers: A Literature-Based Exposure Database This article describes the development and structure of a new occupational exposure database of respirable crystalline silica levels in the construction industry.  The data was compiled from available studies and sources published in or after 1990 and is believed to be the most comprehensive one available.
Multiple 2012 Statistical modeling of crystalline silica exposure by trade in the construction industry using a database compiled from the literature "A quantitative determinants-of-exposure analysis of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) levels in the construction industry was performed using a database compiled from an extensive literature review.  Statistical models were developed to predict work-shift exposure levels by trade..."
Multiple  2012 Silica Exposure During Construction Activities: Statistical Modeling of Task-Based Measurements from the Literature  "In this study, statistical modeling was used to analyze a data set containing 1466 task-based, personal respirable crystalline silica (RCS) measurements gathered from 46 sources to estimate exposure levels during construction tasks and the effects of determinants of exposure..."
Concrete Cutting (Highway Construction) 2012 Evaluation of cut-off saw exposure control methods for respirable dust and crystalline silica in roadway construction Dust reduction equipment adapted for single-person operation was evaluated for gas-powered, commercially available cut-off saws during concrete curb cutting. Cutting was performed without a dust control and with two individual exposure control methods: wet suppression and local exhaust ventilation (LEV)
Multiple 2012 On-tool controls to reduce exposure to respirable dusts in the construction industry Many processes in the construction industry create large quantities of dust; often materials used in construction contain silica. If the dust emissions from these processes are not controlled they can cause exposures that exceed UK workplace exposure limits and consequently lead to occupational diseases such as cancer, silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. A common way to control these hazards is to apply local exhaust ventilation (LEV)
Concrete - Grinding 2010 Case Study to Identify Barriers and Incentives to Implementing an Engineering Control for Concrete Grinding Dust This study examines the implementation of an LEV system on an overhead grinder illustrating the roles that various members of the construction team played.
Concrete - Grinding 2010 Effectiveness of Dust Control Methods for Crystalline Silica and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter Exposure During Manual Concrete Surface Grinding This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory.
Tile (roofing) Sawing/cutting 2010 Laboratory Evaluation to Reduce Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust When Cutting Concrete Roofing Tiles Using a Masonry Saw The effectiveness of a commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system and a water suppression system in reducing silica were evaluated. The authors also took into account the cost of each method tested.
Concrete Cutting 2009 Reducing Silica and Dust Exposures in Construction During Use of Powered Concrete-Cutting Hand Tools: Efficacy of Local Exhaust Ventilation on Hammer Drills This article makes the case that engineering controls are potentially better than respiratory protective equipment for heavy labor. Using engineering controls not only reduces worker exposures but can also reduce bystander exposures in construction.
Masonry - Cutting & Grinding 2009 Engineering Control Technologies to Reduce Occupational Silica Exposures in Masonry Cutting and Tuckpointing A number of tasks in construction generate worker overexposures to respirable crystalline silica dust, which is a significant contributor to occupational mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the performance of commercially available engineering controls.
Multiple 2009 OSHA - Controlling Silica Exposures in Construction This OSHA guidance document reviews the common sources of airborne silica in construction work and methods to reduce worker exposure. The document is divided into nine sections that cover different construction operations. Eight are for specific equipment or operations: Stationary Masonry Saws, Handheld Masonry Saws, Hand- Operated Grinders, Tuckpointing/Mortar Removal, Jackhammers, Rotary Hammers and Similar Tools, Vehicle-Mounted Rock Drilling Rigs, and Drywall Finishing. The other section addresses general housekeeping operations and dust control through the use of dust suppressants.
Enclosed Cabs 2008 Key Design Factors of Enclosed Cab Dust Filtration Systems A NIOSH mining publication on various factor effects on cab air filtration system performance including  intake filter efficiency, intake air leakage, intake filter loading (filter flow resistance), recirculation filter use, and wind effects on cab particulate penetration. 
Concrete - Jackhammering 2008 Water Spray Control of Hazardous Dust When Breaking Concrete with a Jackhammer A NIOSH Workplace Solutions that summarizes a NIOSH study on exposure hazards when breaking up concrete with a jackhammer and methods to control the dust.
Demolition 2008 Silica dust control in small scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations.
Masonry grinding 2008 The Effects of Debris Accumulation Upon Air Flow and Filter Resistance to Air Flow for Four Commercially Available Vacuum Cleaners The results of a laboratory study conducted to evaluate how mortar debris affects air flow and pressure losses through a vacuum cleaner’s filters.
Masonry grinding 2008 Workplace Solutions: Control of Hazardous Dust During Tuckpointing Construction workers are exposed to hazardous dust when grinding or cutting mortar or cement from between the bricks of old buildings. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that exposures could be reduced using tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation and work practices.
Abrasive blasting 2007 Control technology and exposure assessment for occupational exposure to beryllium: abrasive blasting with coal-slag, report no. CT-263-13a The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), working under an interagency agreement with the Office of Regulatory Analysis of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), conducted a study to survey occupational exposures to beryllium and to document engineering controls and work practices affecting those exposures
Abrasive blasting 2007 Field Tests of a Water Induction Nozzle as a Dust Control for Abrasive Blasting The results of a field tests of a wet abrasive blasting device and its impact on the level of respirable crystalline silica dust.
Asphalt 2007 In-Depth Survey of Dust Control Technology for Asphalt Milling at Northeast Asphalt, Inc., US Route 22 and SR 64 Projects, Wisconsin. A study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of water spray controls for a cold-milling machine.
Multiple 2006 Evaluation of Dust Emission Properties for Hand-Operated Power Tools and Devices Used for Work on Mineral Materials BG BAU report on a joint practice-oriented research project focused on hand-held tools and the effectiveness of their dust controls.
Multiple 2006 Silica Exposure on Construction Sites: Results of an Exposure Monitoring Data Compilation Project To expand on the limited size and scope of construction silica exposure studies, a silica monitoring data compilation project was initiated through the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Construction Committee. Personal silica exposure monitoring data was collected and analyzed from 13 private, research, and regulatory groups. An effort was made to collect as much detail as possible about task, tool, and environmental and control conditions so as much information as possible could be garnered.
Multiple 2006 Silica Dust Levels This table shows pooled air monitoring information from regulators in Washington, Oregon, and a Chicago OSHA office, universities and other research groups, and several construction contractors.
Tile (roofing) Sawing/cutting 2006 NIOSH Report: In-Depth Survey Report of a Demonstration and Evaluation of Roofing Tile Saws and Cutters Controlling Respirable and Crystalline Silica Dust The objective of this study was to conduct a demonstration and evaluation of roofing tile saws and the Hytile tile cutter. The study was conducted over two days....Without controls the Hytile cutter performed below the PEL for the most part.
Tile (roofing) Sawing/cutting 2006 In-Depth Survey Report of a Local Exhaust Ventilation Device for Suppressing Respirable and Crystalline Silica Dust from Powered Saws The results of a NIOSH study, to quantify the respirable dust and respirable silica exposures of roofing workers using an electric powered saw with an aftermarket local exhaust ventilation attachment. The study was conducted to determine whether the local exhaust ventilation attachment was able to control respirable dust and respirable silica exposure below occupational exposure limits.
Masonry grinding 2005 Protecting Tuckpointing Workers from Silica Dust: Draft Recommendations for a Ventilated Grinder Describes draft recommendations for use of a ventilated grinder to reduce dust during tuckpointing and describes field trials using these devices.
Abrasive blasting 2004 A Review of Engineering Control Technology for Exposures Generated During Abrasive Blasting Operations This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry.
Asphalt 2004 Results of a Pilot Study of Dust Control Technology for Asphalt Milling at Payne & Dolan, Inc. US Route 12 Project, Wisconsin A pilot study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of water spray controls for a cold miling machine.
Concrete - Grinding 2004 The Efficacy of Local Exhaust Ventilation for Controlling Dust Exposures During Concrete Surface Grinding This study assessed the effectiveness of a commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete grinding activities. Surface grinding was conducted at six commercial building construction sites in Seattle, WA, by cement masons.
Concrete - Jackhammering 2003 Control of respirable dust and crystalline silica from breaking concrete with a jackhammer The goal of the project reported  in this article was to quantify the exposure reduction that could be achieved through the use of a water-spray attachment and two different tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation shrouds during concrete pavement breaking with jackhammers.
Multiple 2003 Silica Dust Exposures During Selected Construction Activities This study characterized exposure for dust-producing construction tasks. Eight common construction tasks were evaluated for quartz and respirable dust exposure by collecting 113 personal task period samples for cleanup; demolition with handheld tools; concrete cutting; concrete mixing; tuck-point grinding; surface grinding; sacking and patching concrete; and concrete floor sanding using both time-integrating filter samples and direct-reading respirable dust monitors.
Multiple 2003 Engineering Controls for Selected Silica and Dust Exposures in the Construction Industry - A Review  This literature review summarizes engineering control technology research for dust and silica exposures associated with four different tasks: cutting brick and concrete block, grinding mortar from between bricks, drilling, and grinding concrete surfaces.
Concrete - Cutting & Grinding 2002 The Effect of Local Exhaust Ventilation Controls on Dust Exposures During Concrete Cutting and Grinding Activities This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities. Work activities were performed by union-sponsored apprentices and included tuck-point grinding, surface grinding, paver block and brick cutting (masonry saw), and concrete block cutting (hand-held saw).
Multiple 2002 Excessive Exposure to Silica in the US Construction Industry Exposures to respirable dust and silica were investigated among 36 construction sites in the USA. Personal measurements (n = 151) were analyzed from 80 workers in four trades, namely bricklayers, painters (while abrasive blasting), operating engineers and laborers. Painters had the highest exposures (median values for respirable dust and silica: 13.5 and 1.28 mg/m3, respectively), followed by laborers (2.46 and 0.350 mg/m3), bricklayers (2.13 and 3.20 mg/m3) and operating engineers (0.720 and 0.075 mg/m3).
Multiple 2002 Dust Control Measures in the Construction Industry The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of control measures for reducing quartz dust exposure and to assess the extent of their use.
Concrete Cutting & Coring 2001 Indoor Wet Concrete Cutting and Coring Exposure Evaluation The study was conducted at 10 different  construction sites, selected with assistance from the participating companies.  Selection criteria included anticipation  of worst-case scenarios, such as  inside buildings or enclosed spaces with  no dust-producing activities nearby.
Concrete - Cutting/sawing 1999 Measurements of the Effectiveness of Dust Control on Cut-off Saws Used in the Construction Industry Experienced workers cutting concrete kerbs and slabs for 15 minute intervals using a diamond blade with and without controls.
Drywall Finishing 1999 Airborne Exposures and Ambulatory Peak Expiratory Flow in Drywall Finishers Personal air sampling of 10 drywall finishers measures exposure to respirable dust, including but not restricted to crystalline silica.
Stone - Granite fabricating 1999 Silica Exposure During Granite Countertop Fabrication Granite countertop fabricators were found to be at risk for silicosis, a preventable disease. Wet processes significantly reduced worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and, in all cases, to below the state ofWashington’s PEL of 0.1 mg/m3.