Create-A-Plan to Control the Dust

Option 3 - Studies and Data on Silica Exposure and the Use of Dust Controls

Material, Task, Etc. Year of Study Title Summary

Concrete Drilling

2018

Pneumatic rock drill vs. electric rotary hammer drill: Productivity, vibration, dust, and noise when drililng into concrete

While there were no differences in drilling productivity between an electric and pneumatic drill of similar mass, there were substantial differences in exposure levels of noise, handle vibration, and respirable silica dust. Structural contractors should switch from pneumatic rock drills to electric rotary hammer drills for structural drilling into concrete in order to reduce worker exposures to the hazards of noise, hand vibration, and silica dust.

Powered Chisel on Mortar

2018

In-Depth Survey Report: Removing Mortar with a Powered Chisel with on-Tool Local Exhaust Ventilation and a Higher-Flow Vacuum Cleaner

The powered mortar-raking chisel with on-tool local exhaust ventilation tested here produced respirable crystalline exposures less than those reported when grinders were used with local exhaust ventilation under similar test parameters. If this tool can remove mortar with the speed and quality required by contractors and is acceptable to workers, it represents an alternative to the use of grinders. However, if it was used for a full shift and dust levels remained constant, the highest quartz concentration measured during use of the chisel – 0.20 mg/m3 – would be about 4 times the OSHA PEL and NIOSH REL, requiring the use of a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 10, such as an N-95 filtering facepiece respirator. Full-shift sampling on job sites should be conducted to validate these findings.

Powered Mortar-Raking Chisel

2018

In-Depth Survey Report: Removing Mortar with a Powered Mortar-Raking Chisel with on-Tool Local Exhaust Ventilation

 The powered chisel with on-tool local exhaust ventilation tested here produced respirable crystalline exposures less than those reported when grinders were used with local exhaust ventilation under similar test parameters. If this tool can remove mortar with the speed and quality required by contractors and is acceptable to workers, it represents an alternative to the use of grinders. However, if it was used for a full shift and dust levels remained constant, the highest quartz concentration measured during use of the chisel – 0.053 mg/m3 – would be about 1.06 times the OSHA PEL and NIOSH REL, requiring the use of a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 10, such as an N-95 filtering facepiece respirator. Full-shift sampling on job sites should be conducted to validate these findings.

Mixing Mortar

2017

In-Depth Survey Report: Mixing Mortar

Mixing either lime mortar or Type N mortar for eight or more hours a day could generate sufficient worker exposure to require the use of an air purifying respirator that is at least as protective as a filtering facepiece respirator or half-mask respirator with N-95 filters. The respirator user must be trained and fit -tested, and the respirator must be used as part of a comprehensive respiratory protection program in accordance with the OSHA silica standard [81 Fed. Reg. 16285 (2016)]. Air sampling to characterize full-shift exposures to mortar mixing with a variety of mixes and mixing technology would determine the extent to which mortar mixing on job sites is a concern and engineering controls should be developed for mortar mixers.

Powered Chisel on Mortar

2017

In-Depth Survey Report: Removing Mortar with a Powered Chisel

The chisel tested here produced respirable crystalline exposures less than those reported when grinders were used with local exhaust ventilation under similar test parameters. If the powered chisel can remove mortar with the speed and quality required by contractors and is acceptable to workers, it represents an alternative to the use of grinders. However, if the chisel was used for a full shift and dust levels remained constant, the highest quartz concentration measured during use of the chisel, 0.13 mg/m3, would be 2.6 times the OSHA PEL and NIOSH REL, requiring the use of a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 10, such as an N-95 filtering facepiece respirator. On the other hand, a quartz exposure of 0.13 mg/m3 would permit a worker to use the chisel under these conditions for more than 3 hours (up to 185 minutes) in an 8-hour shift with no other exposures to quartz without exceeding the REL or PEL. Full-shift sampling on job sites should be conducted to validate these findings. In the meantime, additional research will be conducted to assess the effectiveness of tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation on reducing respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures associated with the use of this powered chisel.

Powered Saw on Mortar

2017

In-Depth Survey Report: Removing Mortar with a Powered Saw

The powered saw tested here produced respirable quartz exposures less than those reported when grinders were used with local exhaust ventilation under similar test parameters. If the saw can remove mortar with the speed and quality required by contractors and is acceptable to workers, it represents an alternative to the use of grinders. However, if the saw was used for a full shift and dust levels remained constant, the highest quartz concentration measured, 0.15 mg/m3, would be 3 times the OSHA PEL and NIOSH REL, requiring the use of a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 10, such as an N-95 filtering facepiece respirator. On the other hand, a quartz exposure of 0.15 mg/m3 would permit a worker to use the saw under these conditions for up to 160 minutes in an 8-hour shift with no other exposures to quartz without exceeding the REL or PEL. Full-shift sampling on job sites should be conducted to validate these findings.

Hydraulic Fracking

2017

Evaluation of an improved prototype mini-baghouse to control the release of respirable crystalline silica from sand movers

NIOSH research identified at least seven sources where respirable crystalline silica aerosols were generated at hydraulic fracturing sites. NIOSH researchers developed an engineering control to address one of the largest sources of respirable crystalline silica  aerosol generation, RCS escaping from thief hatches on the top of sand movers. The control, the NIOSH Mini-Baghouse Retrofit Assembly (NMBRA), mounts on the thief hatches. Analytical results for respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica indicated the use of the NMBRA effectively reduced concentrations of both respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica downwind of the thief hatches. 

Stone Countertop Fabrication

 2017

Experimental Evaluation of Respirable Dust and Crystalline Silica Controls During Simulated Performance of Stone Countertop Fabrication Tasks With Powered Hand Tools

Sheet-flow-wetting combined with on-tool local exhaust ventilation is an effective engineering control for reducing respirable dust exposures during engineered stone edge grinding and blade cutting. On the other hand, addition of local exhaust ventilation to some water-spray-wetted tools may reduce the effectiveness of the wet method.

Fiber Cement Cutting

2017

In-Depth Survey Report: Laboratory Evaluation of Power Shears for Cutting Fiber-cement Siding

Results from the laboratory tests suggest that the reduction of respirable dust generation rate from using local exhaust ventilation (LEV) with dust-collecting circular saws is largely in agreement with the previously reported exposure reductions obtained from field surveys of construction sites where this control measure was used. The significantly lower respirable dust generation rate for the power shears compared to that of the C-M saw with or without LEV indicates that cutting fiber-cement siding using similar power shears could be expected to result in an 8- hr TWA exposure to respirable crystalline silica lower than those observed in the field surveys using dust collection circular saws with LEV (0.013±0.009 mg/m3) and without LEV (0.084±0.055 mg/m3). From the perspective of exposure control, the use of power shears whenever practical is a preferred method for cutting fiber cement siding, and its use adheres to thehierarchy of controls.

Concrete Drilling

2017

The Effects of Bit Wear on Respirable Silica Dust, Noise and Productivity: A Hammer Drill Bench Study

Increasing bit wear was associated with increasing respirable silica dust and noise and reduced drilling productivity. The levels of dust and noise produced by these experimental conditions would require dust capture, hearing protection, and possibly respiratory protection. The findings support the adoption of a bit replacement program by construction contractors.

Powered Chisel on Mortar

2017

In-Depth Survey Report: Removing Mortar with a Powered Chisel with On-tool Local Exhaust Ventilation

The powered chisel with on-tool local exhaust ventilation tested here produced respirable crystalline exposures less than those reported when grinders were used with local exhaust ventilation under similar test parameters. If this tool can remove mortar with the speed and quality required by contractors and is acceptable to workers, it represents an alternative to the use of grinders. However, if it was used for a full shift and dust levels remained constant, the highest quartz concentration measured during use of the chisel, 0.16mg/m3, would be about three times the OSHA PEL and NIOSH REL, requiring the use of a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 10, such as an N-95 filtering facepiece respirator. Full-shift sampling on job sites should be conducted to validate these findings.

Asphalt Milling

2016

Respirable crystalline silica exposures during asphalt pavement milling at eleven highway construction sites

The results indicate that engineering controls consisting of ventilation controls in combination with water-sprays are capable of controlling occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica generated by asphalt pavement milling machines on highway construction sites.

Fiber Cement Cutting

2016

On the Characterization of the Generation Rate and Size-Dependent Crystalline Silica Content of the Dust from Cutting Fiber Cement Siding

Laboratory tests of cutting fiber cement siding in a newly developed laboratory testing system verified that the system provided high repeatability, making it suitable for the targeted characterization of the dust generation rate and size-dependent silica content. Combining the results for both the dust size distribution and size-dependent silica content, it was found that most RCS from cutting fiber cement siding of the four brands resides in the dust ~2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter. These results would help guide the development of specific engineering control measures targeting at lowering workers’ exposure to RCS while cutting fiber cement siding.

Stone Countertop Fabrication

 2016

In-Depth Survey Report: Engineering Control of Silica Dust from Stone Countertop Fabrication and Installation

The results from the task-based samples in this survey revealed that wet grinding and wet polishing both granite and engineered quartz stone may still lead to overexposure to respirable crystalline silica. The exposure levels for wet grinding were especially concerning. Using a larger amount of water through a center water feed for the grinders may be the first choice for a future test of control technologies. Additional engineering control measures will be needed for these tasks to reduce the exposure to levels consistently below the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). Alternative ways of cleaning and drying stone countertops other than using compressed air need to be considered and implemented. In the absence of sufficient dust controls, respirators should continue to be used to reduce exposures, and the employer needs to make sure that the respiratory protection program follows the OSHA standard.

Concrete Polisher

2016

In-Depth Survey Report: Concrete Surface Preparation Tools Machine 5

The G- 320D concrete polisher evaluated in this survey was equipped with a Bull 1250 Dust Collection System (SASE Company, Kent, WA) intended to control and remove dust particles generated during the concrete polishing process. The dust control system adequately controlled worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica during this site visit. Additional evaluation is recommended to collect repeated samples using the same equipment to quantify the actual air flow of the vacuum system and establish a correlation between the actual and the listed airflow.

Concrete Polisher

2016

In-Depth Survey Report: Concrete Surface Preparation Tools Machine 4

The Prep-Master 2420 concrete polisher evaluated in this survey was equipped with a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system intended to control and remove dust particles generated during the concrete polishing process. However, the dust control system needs modifications so that worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica can be reduced during concrete finishing operations.

Concrete Cutting

2015

A Water Soluble Additive to Suppress Respirable Dust from Concrete-Cutting Chainsaws: A Case Study

Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. 

Multiple

2015

Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study

Researchers sampled airborne silica at thirteen occupational sites in the United States and Ireland, using both high and low flow rate cyclones, and compared results. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. 

Multiple

2015

Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers

This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. This study showed that the structured intervention approach at least partly contributed to a substantial reduction in quartz exposure among high exposed construction workers.

Concrete Drilling

2015 

Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure when Dowel Drilling in Concrete

Construction workers may be exposed to hazardous dust containing respirable crystalline silica when using dowel drilling machines to drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that exposures were reduced using tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation (LEV) and good work practices.

Multiple 

2015

A Case-Control Study of Airways Obstruction Among Construction Workers

While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes increase COPD risk. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted.

Fiber-Cement Cutting

2015

Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure when Cutting Fiber-Cement Siding

Construction workers may be exposed to hazardous dust containing silica when cutting fiber-cement siding. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that workers’ exposures could be reduced by attaching a regular shop vacuum to a dust-collecting circular saw providing a simple low-cost solution.

Concrete Polisher

2015

In-Depth Survey Report: Concrete Surface Preparation Tools Machine 1

 The Prep-Master 2420 concrete polisher evaluated in this survey was equipped with a local exhaust ventilation system intended to control and remove dust particles generated during the concrete polishing process. However, the dust control system needs modifications so that worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica can be reduced during concrete finishing operations.

Concrete Polisher

2015

In-Depth Survey Report: Concrete Surface Preparation Tools Machines 2 & 3

The HTC and Husqvarna concrete polishers evaluated in this survey were equipped with an engineering control, a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system intended to control and remove dust particles generated during the concrete polishing process. The dust control system adequately controlled worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica during this site visit. Additional evaluation is recommended to collect repeated samples using the same equipment. Also, it would be useful to quantify the actual airflow of the vacuum system and establish a correlation between the actual and the listed airflow [13,479 L/min (476 cfm)].

Multiple

2014

An Evaluation of Silica Exposure Controls for Tuckpointing: Ermator S26 Vacuum with Two ICS Dust Director Shrouds adn Two Bosch Grinders

This report describes the results of an evaluation of a tuckpointing dust control system for use by two workers simultaneously. The system consisted of two Bosch grinders; two Dust Director shrouds attached by duct to a single Ermator S26 vacuum. Randomized trials with and without use of the dust control system were conducted in a controlled setting.

Multiple

2013

Study - Construction Workers' Exposure to Crystalline Silica - Literature Review and Analysis

The specific objectives of this study of construction workers' exposure to silica "were to identify the positions and duties most at risk in relation to their exposure level; to identify the various means of controlling exposure while documenting their effectiveness; and to develop a relational database on the exposure to silica dusts, compiling the literature data in a form usable by researchers or preventionists..."

Roof Tile Cutting & Clean-Up

2013

Exposure Assessment for Roofers Exposed to Silica during Installation of Roof Tiles

Results of a health hazard evaluation conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of exposures to dust and silica among roofer in Phoenix.

Concrete Cutting

2013

Controlling Dust from Concrete Saw Cutting

Results of field experiment examining dust reductions through the use of water from a hose and sprayer while cutting concrete with gas-powered saws.

Multiple

2013

Occupational Exposure to Silica in Construction Workers: A Literature-Based Exposure Database

This article describes the development and structure of a new occupational exposure database of respirable crystalline silica levels in the construction industry.  The data was compiled from available studies and sources published in or after 1990 and is believed to be the most comprehensive one available.

Multiple

2012

Statistical modeling of crystalline silica exposure by trade in the construction industry using a database compiled from the literature

"A quantitative determinants-of-exposure analysis of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) levels in the construction industry was performed using a database compiled from an extensive literature review.  Statistical models were developed to predict work-shift exposure levels by trade..."

Multiple

 2012

Silica Exposure During Construction Activities: Statistical Modeling of Task-Based Measurements from the Literature

 "In this study, statistical modeling was used to analyze a data set containing 1466 task-based, personal respirable crystalline silica (RCS) measurements gathered from 46 sources to estimate exposure levels during construction tasks and the effects of determinants of exposure..."

Concrete Cutting (Highway Construction)

2012

Evaluation of cut-off saw exposure control methods for respirable dust and crystalline silica in roadway construction

Dust reduction equipment adapted for single-person operation was evaluated for gas-powered, commercially available cut-off saws during concrete curb cutting. Cutting was performed without a dust control and with two individual exposure control methods: wet suppression and local exhaust ventilation (LEV)

Multiple

2012

On-tool controls to reduce exposure to respirable dusts in the construction industry

Many processes in the construction industry create large quantities of dust; often materials used in construction contain silica. If the dust emissions from these processes are not controlled they can cause exposures that exceed UK workplace exposure limits and consequently lead to occupational diseases such as cancer, silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. A common way to control these hazards is to apply local exhaust ventilation (LEV)

 Concrete Drilling

 2012

Evaluation and Control of Respirable Silica Exposure During Lateral Drilling of Concrete

The drill jig alone, presumably by distancing the worker from the surface, reducedairborne silica exposure by 55% over conventional pneumatic drilling. However,this level was still six times the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, so use of arespirator would still be necessary. When outfi tted with the shroud and vacuum for dust control, the operator’sexposure to airborne silica was reduced by 94% and to a level below the NIOSHrecommended exposure limit of 0.05 milligrams per cubic meter.

Concrete - Grinding

2010

Case Study to Identify Barriers and Incentives to Implementing an Engineering Control for Concrete Grinding Dust

This study examines the implementation of an LEV system on an overhead grinder illustrating the roles that various members of the construction team played.

Concrete - Grinding

2010

Effectiveness of Dust Control Methods for Crystalline Silica and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter Exposure During Manual Concrete Surface Grinding

This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory.

Tile (roofing) Sawing/cutting

2010

Laboratory Evaluation to Reduce Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust When Cutting Concrete Roofing Tiles Using a Masonry Saw

The effectiveness of a commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system and a water suppression system in reducing silica were evaluated. The authors also took into account the cost of each method tested.

Concrete Cutting

2009

Reducing Silica and Dust Exposures in Construction During Use of Powered Concrete-Cutting Hand Tools: Efficacy of Local Exhaust Ventilation on Hammer Drills

This article makes the case that engineering controls are potentially better than respiratory protective equipment for heavy labor. Using engineering controls not only reduces worker exposures but can also reduce bystander exposures in construction.

Masonry - Cutting & Grinding

2009

Engineering Control Technologies to Reduce Occupational Silica Exposures in Masonry Cutting and Tuckpointing

A number of tasks in construction generate worker overexposures to respirable crystalline silica dust, which is a significant contributor to occupational mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the performance of commercially available engineering controls.

Multiple

2009

OSHA - Controlling Silica Exposures in Construction

This OSHA guidance document reviews the common sources of airborne silica in construction work and methods to reduce worker exposure. The document is divided into nine sections that cover different construction operations. Eight are for specific equipment or operations: Stationary Masonry Saws, Handheld Masonry Saws, Hand- Operated Grinders, Tuckpointing/Mortar Removal, Jackhammers, Rotary Hammers and Similar Tools, Vehicle-Mounted Rock Drilling Rigs, and Drywall Finishing. The other section addresses general housekeeping operations and dust control through the use of dust suppressants.

Enclosed Cabs

2008

Key Design Factors of Enclosed Cab Dust Filtration Systems

A NIOSH mining publication on various factor effects on cab air filtration system performance including  intake filter efficiency, intake air leakage, intake filter loading (filter flow resistance), recirculation filter use, and wind effects on cab particulate penetration. 

Concrete - Jackhammering

2008

Water Spray Control of Hazardous Dust When Breaking Concrete with a Jackhammer

A NIOSH Workplace Solutions that summarizes a NIOSH study on exposure hazards when breaking up concrete with a jackhammer and methods to control the dust.

Demolition

2008

Silica dust control in small scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance

This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations.

Masonry grinding

2008

The Effects of Debris Accumulation Upon Air Flow and Filter Resistance to Air Flow for Four Commercially Available Vacuum Cleaners

The results of a laboratory study conducted to evaluate how mortar debris affects air flow and pressure losses through a vacuum cleaner’s filters.

Masonry grinding

2008

Workplace Solutions: Control of Hazardous Dust During Tuckpointing

Construction workers are exposed to hazardous dust when grinding or cutting mortar or cement from between the bricks of old buildings. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that exposures could be reduced using tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation and work practices.

Abrasive blasting

2007

Control technology and exposure assessment for occupational exposure to beryllium: abrasive blasting with coal-slag, report no. CT-263-13a

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), working under an interagency agreement with the Office of Regulatory Analysis of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), conducted a study to survey occupational exposures to beryllium and to document engineering controls and work practices affecting those exposures

Abrasive blasting

2007

Field Tests of a Water Induction Nozzle as a Dust Control for Abrasive Blasting

The results of a field tests of a wet abrasive blasting device and its impact on the level of respirable crystalline silica dust.

Asphalt

2007

In-Depth Survey of Dust Control Technology for Asphalt Milling at Northeast Asphalt, Inc., US Route 22 and SR 64 Projects, Wisconsin.

A study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of water spray controls for a cold-milling machine.

Multiple

2006

Evaluation of Dust Emission Properties for Hand-Operated Power Tools and Devices Used for Work on Mineral Materials

BG BAU report on a joint practice-oriented research project focused on hand-held tools and the effectiveness of their dust controls.

Multiple

2006

Silica Exposure on Construction Sites: Results of an Exposure Monitoring Data Compilation Project

To expand on the limited size and scope of construction silica exposure studies, a silica monitoring data compilation project was initiated through the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Construction Committee. Personal silica exposure monitoring data was collected and analyzed from 13 private, research, and regulatory groups. An effort was made to collect as much detail as possible about task, tool, and environmental and control conditions so as much information as possible could be garnered.

Multiple

2006

Silica Dust Levels

This table shows pooled air monitoring information from regulators in Washington, Oregon, and a Chicago OSHA office, universities and other research groups, and several construction contractors.

Tile (roofing) Sawing/cutting

2006

NIOSH Report: In-Depth Survey Report of a Demonstration and Evaluation of Roofing Tile Saws and Cutters Controlling Respirable and Crystalline Silica Dust

The objective of this study was to conduct a demonstration and evaluation of roofing tile saws and the Hytile tile cutter. The study was conducted over two days....Without controls the Hytile cutter performed below the PEL for the most part.

Tile (roofing) Sawing/cutting

2006

In-Depth Survey Report of a Local Exhaust Ventilation Device for Suppressing Respirable and Crystalline Silica Dust from Powered Saws

The results of a NIOSH study, to quantify the respirable dust and respirable silica exposures of roofing workers using an electric powered saw with an aftermarket local exhaust ventilation attachment. The study was conducted to determine whether the local exhaust ventilation attachment was able to control respirable dust and respirable silica exposure below occupational exposure limits.

Masonry grinding

2005

Protecting Tuckpointing Workers from Silica Dust: Draft Recommendations for a Ventilated Grinder

Describes draft recommendations for use of a ventilated grinder to reduce dust during tuckpointing and describes field trials using these devices.

Abrasive blasting

2004

A Review of Engineering Control Technology for Exposures Generated During Abrasive Blasting Operations

This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry.

Asphalt

2004

Results of a Pilot Study of Dust Control Technology for Asphalt Milling at Payne & Dolan, Inc. US Route 12 Project, Wisconsin

A pilot study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of water spray controls for a cold miling machine.

Concrete - Grinding

2004

The Efficacy of Local Exhaust Ventilation for Controlling Dust Exposures During Concrete Surface Grinding

This study assessed the effectiveness of a commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete grinding activities. Surface grinding was conducted at six commercial building construction sites in Seattle, WA, by cement masons.

Concrete - Jackhammering

2003

Control of respirable dust and crystalline silica from breaking concrete with a jackhammer

The goal of the project reported  in this article was to quantify the exposure reduction that could be achieved through the use of a water-spray attachment and two different tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation shrouds during concrete pavement breaking with jackhammers.

Multiple

2003

Silica Dust Exposures During Selected Construction Activities

This study characterized exposure for dust-producing construction tasks. Eight common construction tasks were evaluated for quartz and respirable dust exposure by collecting 113 personal task period samples for cleanup; demolition with handheld tools; concrete cutting; concrete mixing; tuck-point grinding; surface grinding; sacking and patching concrete; and concrete floor sanding using both time-integrating filter samples and direct-reading respirable dust monitors.

Multiple

2003

Engineering Controls for Selected Silica and Dust Exposures in the Construction Industry - A Review

 This literature review summarizes engineering control technology research for dust and silica exposures associated with four different tasks: cutting brick and concrete block, grinding mortar from between bricks, drilling, and grinding concrete surfaces.

Concrete - Cutting & Grinding

2002

The Effect of Local Exhaust Ventilation Controls on Dust Exposures During Concrete Cutting and Grinding Activities

This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities. Work activities were performed by union-sponsored apprentices and included tuck-point grinding, surface grinding, paver block and brick cutting (masonry saw), and concrete block cutting (hand-held saw).

Multiple

2002

Excessive Exposure to Silica in the US Construction Industry

Exposures to respirable dust and silica were investigated among 36 construction sites in the USA. Personal measurements (n = 151) were analyzed from 80 workers in four trades, namely bricklayers, painters (while abrasive blasting), operating engineers and laborers. Painters had the highest exposures (median values for respirable dust and silica: 13.5 and 1.28 mg/m3, respectively), followed by laborers (2.46 and 0.350 mg/m3), bricklayers (2.13 and 3.20 mg/m3) and operating engineers (0.720 and 0.075 mg/m3).

Multiple

2002

Dust Control Measures in the Construction Industry

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of control measures for reducing quartz dust exposure and to assess the extent of their use.

Concrete Cutting & Coring

2001

Indoor Wet Concrete Cutting and Coring Exposure Evaluation

The study was conducted at 10 different  construction sites, selected with assistance from the participating companies.  Selection criteria included anticipation  of worst-case scenarios, such as  inside buildings or enclosed spaces with  no dust-producing activities nearby.

Concrete - Cutting/sawing

1999

Measurements of the Effectiveness of Dust Control on Cut-off Saws Used in the Construction Industry

Experienced workers cutting concrete kerbs and slabs for 15 minute intervals using a diamond blade with and without controls.

Drywall Finishing

1999

Airborne Exposures and Ambulatory Peak Expiratory Flow in Drywall Finishers

Personal air sampling of 10 drywall finishers measures exposure to respirable dust, including but not restricted to crystalline silica.

Stone - Granite fabricating

1999

Silica Exposure During Granite Countertop Fabrication

Granite countertop fabricators were found to be at risk for silicosis, a preventable disease. Wet processes significantly reduced worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and, in all cases, to below the state ofWashington’s PEL of 0.1 mg/m3.